Magnitude 4.8 – 7 km N of Whitehouse Station, New Jersey

Comparative Analysis of Seismic Vibrations Against USBM RI8507 Standards Following the New Jersey Earthquake.


On April 5, 2024, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, experienced a seismic event of magnitude 4.8. This earthquake, detected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at a depth of 4.7 kilometers, involved a significant release of energy, quantified at 1.729 Newton-meters (N-m). Located close to densely populated areas, the event highlighted the critical need for timely and thorough assessments of its potential effects on infrastructure.

Big Apple Group, a subsidiary of RMA Company, stands at the forefront of vibration monitoring and data analysis in the United States. With a proactive strategy, the company had already placed advanced triaxial seismographs across the tri-state area, fortifying their role in safeguarding infrastructure. This network of instruments was pivotal in capturing the vital vibration data immediately after the earthquake occurred.

This white paper draws on the comprehensive data harvested from these strategically placed instruments, located 38 and 62 miles from the epicenter. Our analysis primarily compares the seismic vibrations recorded on the Transverse, Vertical, and Longitudinal axes against the thresholds set by the USBM RI8507 standard. This standard is commonly used to manage vibration impacts from construction activities. Our aim is to examine the seismic vibration behavior and assess whether the current construction vibration guidelines are adequate for such natural seismic events.

By quickly analyzing the vibrations triggered by the earthquake with its well-established network of triaxial seismographs, Big Apple Group not only showcases its preparedness and expertise in tackling seismic events but also strengthens its reputation as a leader in the industry. This proactive stance underscores the company’s commitment to enhancing urban resilience and underscores the importance of advanced monitoring technologies and detailed data analysis in managing urban infrastructure.

The earthquake’s proximity to densely populated urban centers necessitated an immediate and thorough review of the recorded vibrations and their potential implications on infrastructure. The recorded nodal planes, with NP1 striking at 11° with a dip of 45° and a rake of 158°, and NP2 striking at 117° with a dip of 75° and a rake of 47°, alongside principal axes data, provided insights into the directional forces and stresses exerted during the earthquake. This directional data is critical for understanding the varying impacts on infrastructure depending on their orientation relative to the seismic event.

Triaxial geophones, traditionally calibrated for monitoring construction-related vibrations, proved invaluable in capturing the multi-dimensional aspects of the seismic vibrations. These devices, capable of recording vibrations across Transverse, Vertical, and Longitudinal axes, offer a comprehensive view of the ground movements, facilitating a detailed analysis of seismic impacts.

The objective of this white paper is twofold. Firstly, it aims to present a comparative analysis of the seismic vibrations recorded by the triaxial geophones against the USBM RI8507 standards, which serve as a benchmark for assessing the potential for damage from construction vibrations. The USBM RI8507 guidelines are instrumental in understanding the thresholds beyond which structural damage becomes a significant risk, thus providing a framework for evaluating the seismic data【USBM RI8507, “Blasting Vibrations and Their Effects on Structures”】. Secondly, this evaluation seeks to delve into the broader implications of such seismic events on urban infrastructure. By analyzing the recorded seismic vibrations within the context of established standards, this paper endeavors to shed light on the adequacy of current vibration monitoring practices. Are these practices sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by seismic events? Can the insights gleaned from construction vibration monitoring be effectively applied to urban seismic resilience? These are crucial questions that this white paper aims to address.

In the wake of the New Jersey earthquake, the findings presented herein are expected to contribute significantly to the ongoing discourse on urban resilience, seismic risk assessment, and the enhancement of vibration monitoring protocols to safeguard infrastructure against future seismic events.


Our seismic data analysis methodology employed a structured approach, utilizing triaxial geophones placed in Fairfield, New Jersey, and throughout New York City’s Five Boroughs. These sensors are part of the Big Apple Group’s broader infrastructure monitoring efforts and were strategically positioned to detect seismic vibrations from a recent earthquake centered 7 km north of Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. This earthquake, notable for its significant energy release close to densely populated areas, provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate urban infrastructure resilience to seismic events through real-time data.

The analysis involved comparing the recorded seismic data to the USBM RI8507 standards. This comparison is crucial for assessing the impact of the seismic activity on urban structures and for evaluating the effectiveness of current vibration monitoring systems. Specifically, we focused on identifying instances where peak particle velocities (PPVs) exceeded the RI8507 ‘stop work’ thresholds, which signal potential risks to structural integrity.

Additionally, our analysis distinguished between vibrations caused by the earthquake and those from construction activities by examining the frequency content of the recorded data, targeting low-frequency components that are typically associated with natural seismic events.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

Big Apple has implemented the use of the Instantel Micromate for vibration monitoring. These seismographs are adept at capturing vibrations along three axes—Transverse, Vertical, and Longitudinal—providing a comprehensive view of ground movements. Each device is equipped with cellular modems, enabling real-time data transfer to a central database. This immediate availability of data is critical for prompt decision-making in earthwork and excavation scenarios. The seismographs are subject to strict factory calibrations to guarantee measurement accuracy and reliability, with calibration certificates provided to confirm data integrity.

The network of deployed triaxial geophones, including units numbered 507, 518, 272, 158, 149, 457, and 462, forms a robust system for high-fidelity vibration monitoring. These devices measure multidimensional vibrations, crucial for thorough ground movement analysis. The data primarily revolves around peak particle velocities (PPVs) and zero crossing frequencies, pivotal for assessing the intensity and characteristics of seismic vibrations.

This data underpins our comparative analysis against the USBM RI8507 guidelines, which set forth vibration limits to protect structures during construction. We predominantly use the Histogram-Combo Mode for data capture, combining full-waveform events with histogram recording. This method is particularly effective for detecting significant vibrations and maintaining continuous background monitoring. For each monitoring period, the system calculates maximum peaks and identifies the frequency of the largest peak, allowing for in-depth analysis of critical vibrations and their potential structural impacts. If vibrations exceed predetermined thresholds, immediate notifications are dispatched to the contractor at the Review Level and escalated to all concerned parties if Limit Levels are exceeded. Regular checks ensure sensor connectivity and functionality, with immediate corrective actions taken by field technicians for any detected issues.

Data Analysis Framework

The analysis framework is structured around two main components:

Vibration and Analysis at 38 Miles from the Epicenter:

Units 507 and 518 provided critical data from this distance, offering insights into the seismic impact relatively close to the epicenter. The PPVs recorded were systematically compared to the USBM RI8507 standards to determine if the vibrations fell within acceptable limits for urban structures. The analysis focused on both the magnitude of the vibrations (as indicated by the PPVs) and their frequency content, essential for assessing potential structural impacts.

Vibration Data Analysis 62 Miles from the Epicenter:

This component extends the analysis to a broader radius, incorporating data from Units 272, 158, 149, 457, and 462, among others. Located across New York City, these geophones captured a wide range of PPVs and frequencies, reflecting the varied impact of the seismic event over distance. The data was evaluated against the USBM RI8507 and USGS standards to gauge the extent of seismic vibrations and their implications for urban infrastructure.

The comparative analysis focuses on aligning the recorded seismic vibrations with the thresholds specified in the USBM RI8507 standards. This assessment serves dual purposes: evaluating the immediate impact of the earthquake on urban infrastructure and gauging the adequacy of current vibration monitoring systems. A critical aspect of this analysis is identifying instances where recorded peak particle velocities (PPVs) surpass the RI8507 ‘stop work’ thresholds, which may signal potential risks to structural integrity.

Further, we scrutinize the frequency content of these vibrations to differentiate those caused by the earthquake from those resulting from construction activities. Special attention is given to the detection of low-frequency components, which are characteristic of seismic events. This detailed examination helps in understanding the nature of the ground movements and in implementing necessary safety measures.

Understanding Human Responses to Ground-Borne Vibrations

The seismic data captured 62 miles from the epicenter in New York City, detailed through the recordings from the seismographs, helps us understand the behavior of earthquake-induced vibrations and their perceptibility in urban settings. This information is essential for assessing the impact of earthquakes on urban infrastructure and the human responses to such events.

Human sensitivity to ground-borne vibrations, while a common occurrence, varies significantly across individuals and is influenced by the source and intensity of the vibrations. These vibrations, whether from traffic, construction, or seismic activities, can manifest as discomfort through sensations like shaking or audible low-frequency humming. This section explores the human perception of such vibrations and correlates these experiences with the seismic data presented, particularly focusing on the implications for urban residents near construction sites and seismic event zones.

Perception and Discomfort Levels:

  • Sensory Experience: Individuals might perceive ground-borne vibrations as mild discomfort, noticeable through slight shaking or a low-frequency hum. The level of discomfort typically correlates with the vibration intensity but varies widely among individuals due to differing sensitivities.
  • Subjective Variability: It is crucial to understand that the same vibration levels can be perceived differently by different people. Some may find mild vibrations to be unsettling, while others may hardly notice them.

Structural Impact Considerations:

  • Building Integrity: Although these vibrations can be felt, they rarely compromise the structural integrity of buildings that adhere to modern engineering standards. It’s important for residents to recognize that perceptible vibrations do not necessarily indicate a threat to building safety.

Human Response to Ground Vibration and Air Overpressure:

Based on the data, human responses can be categorized into different levels of perception and discomfort according to the PPV (peak particle velocity) and associated airblast levels:

  • Barely to distinctly perceptible (0.02–0.10 in/sec PPV, 50–70 dB airblast)
  • Distinctly to strongly perceptible (0.10–0.50 in/sec PPV, 70–90 dB airblast)
  • Strongly perceptible to mildly unpleasant (0.50–1.00 in/sec PPV, 90–120 dB airblast)
  • Mildly to distinctly unpleasant (1.00–2.00 in/sec PPV, 120–140 dB airblast)
  • Distinctly unpleasant to intolerable (2.00–10.00 in/sec PPV, 140–170 dB airblast)

These categories help in understanding how different levels of vibration and air overpressure impact human comfort and perception. They also serve as a guide for evaluating the adequacy of current construction and seismic monitoring practices in urban settings, ensuring they do not exceed levels that could lead to public discomfort or distress.

Correlation with USBM RI8507 Standards:

The USBM RI8507 provides a framework for understanding safe vibration levels, particularly in the context of structural damage and human annoyance:

  • Safe Vibration Levels: These are outlined to range from 0.5 to 2.0 in/sec PPV for residential structures, offering a benchmark to prevent damage and excessive annoyance.
  • Human Annoyance Considerations: The study highlights that a significant minority of individuals find vibrations levels above 0.5 in/sec PPV to be annoying, indicating the need for sensitive vibration monitoring systems in urban environments.

This correlation between the USBM RI8507 standards and human sensitivity underscores the importance of maintaining vibration thresholds that are not only structurally safe but also comfortable for urban residents. By adhering to these guidelines, urban planners and construction managers can ensure that their projects are compliant with both safety standards and public comfort requirements, thereby enhancing urban living quality and minimizing the impact of necessary but potentially disruptive activities.

Earthquake Vibrations and Urban Impact:

  1. Intensity and Distance: Earthquake vibrations tend to decrease in intensity as they travel further from the epicenter. The data shows that even at 62 miles away, the vibrations (with PPVs like 0.0469 in/s for longitudinal vibrations) are detectable but remain below thresholds that would typically cause structural damage or human discomfort​​. This implies that urban structures in New York City are likely to withstand such seismic events without significant damage, provided they are built according to modern construction standards that incorporate seismic considerations.
  2. Low-Frequency Characteristics: Earthquakes typically generate low-frequency vibrations, which can travel long distances with less attenuation compared to higher-frequency vibrations generated by local sources such as construction or traffic. The recorded low frequencies (e.g., 10.2 Hz longitudinally) are characteristic of seismic activities and help differentiate earthquake vibrations from other sources​​. These low frequencies are less likely to cause annoyance or discomfort, which are more often triggered by higher-frequency vibrations that are perceptible within buildings.
  3. Human Perception and Safety Thresholds: The USBM RI8507 guidelines serve as a reference for safe vibration levels during construction activities and also provide a baseline for understanding potential human responses to earthquake-induced vibrations. The vibrations recorded fall well below these safety thresholds, suggesting that the risk of perceptible discomfort or structural damage to urban dwellings from this specific seismic event is minimal. This correlation helps reassure the public about the safety of their buildings during such earthquakes and aids in urban planning and emergency preparedness​​.

Distance and Intensity Correlation:

Our discussion on the relationship between distance and vibration intensity lays the groundwork for understanding seismic wave propagation from the epicenter. This theoretical context is crucial for interpreting the data recorded at locations 38 and 62 miles from the New Jersey earthquake epicenter. By analyzing this data in light of USBM RI-8507 standards, Charles Dowding’s principles, and USGS guidelines, we gain insights into how seismic intensity diminishes with distance and the implications for infrastructure resilience and vibration monitoring protocols. This analysis not only validates these principles but also helps refine our strategies for monitoring and mitigating seismic impacts on urban structures.

Application to 38 Miles Readings

At 38 miles from the epicenter, the seismic data captured included:

  • Unit 507: PPVs of Tran: 0.0860 in/s at 8.7 Hz, Vert: 0.1015 in/s at 12.5 Hz, and Long: 0.2033 in/s at 11.9 Hz​​.
  • Unit 518: PPVs of Tran: 0.0797 in/s at 10.2 Hz, Vert: 0.0434 in/s at 3.0 Hz, and Long: 0.2067 in/s at 5.6 Hz​​.


  • According to USBM RI-8507 and Dowding’s principles, the expected decrease in vibration intensity with increased distance was evident, but the levels remained significant enough to be easily detected by the triaxial geophones.
  • The lower-than-expected frequency rates and higher PPVs closer to the epicenter align with Dowding’s observations that seismic intensity, especially peak particle velocities, diminishes with distance but may still exceed typical construction vibration thresholds, which did not occur here as the readings were below the ‘stop work’ threshold of 0.25 in/s.

Application to 62 Miles Readings

At 62 miles, the vibrational data showed distinct characteristics:

  • Unit 272: High PPVs of Tran: 0.4583 in/s, Vert: 0.4251 in/s, and Long: 0.6262 in/s​​.
  • Other Units (e.g., 158, 149, 457, 462): Recorded lower PPVs, indicating a further attenuation of vibration intensities as the distance from the epicenter increased​​​​​​.


  • Despite the greater distance, Unit 272 recorded unusually high PPVs, possibly due to local amplification effects or less energy dissipation along the propagation path, which could suggest complex underground structures or urban density effects.
  • The lower frequencies noted particularly in Unit 272, around 2 Hz for Tran and Vert, and 9 Hz for Long, indicate the typical behavior of seismic waves that carry lower frequency vibrations further than higher frequencies, a key point highlighted by Dowding’s work and relevant USGS modeling.\

Practical Implications for Urban Areas:

Understanding that seismic wave intensity and frequency characteristics can vary significantly based on distance—and potentially urban topography or underground infrastructure—cities must tailor their seismic monitoring and building codes accordingly. This data suggests:

  • Monitoring and Preparedness: Continuous monitoring of seismic vibrations is crucial for early detection and assessment of potential earthquake impacts. Urban areas, especially those known to be earthquake-prone, can benefit from integrated seismic monitoring systems that alert to significant seismic events, allowing for timely safety measures and public communications to manage both actual risks and public perceptions effectively.
  • Building Codes and Construction Practices: Data like this reinforces the importance of earthquake-resistant building designs and adherence to construction codes that consider seismic risks. Ensuring buildings can handle the specific low-frequency vibrations typical of earthquakes can significantly mitigate potential damage and reduce the impact on residents.
  • Public Awareness and Education: Educating the public about the nature of earthquake-induced vibrations, their typical frequencies, and expected impacts can help manage anxiety and misinformation during seismic events. Clear communication about vibration levels and safety preparedness can enhance community resilience against earthquakes.

Data Review and Analysis at 38 Miles

The analysis of seismic data from two monitoring stations, specifically Unit 507 and Unit 518, situated about 38 miles from the earthquake’s epicenter, enhances our understanding of the impact of seismic vibrations on urban infrastructure. This understanding is framed within the context of the USBM RI8507 guidelines, which set clear vibration limits to prevent structural damage during construction activities. These guidelines provide a critical benchmark for evaluating the seismic vibrations recorded, allowing us to assess their potential to affect urban structural integrity and to refine our monitoring and mitigation strategies accordingly.

Unit 507 and Unit 518 Overview

  • Unit 507, positioned near a critical infrastructure site, recorded peak particle velocities (PPVs) across the three axes with notable readings of 0.0860 in/s in the Transverse axis at 8.7 Hz, 0.1015 in/s in the Vertical axis at 12.5 Hz, and 0.2033 in/s in the Longitudinal axis at 11.9 Hz, cumulating in a peak vector sum of 0.2203 in/s​​.
  • Unit 518 offered complementary data, with PPVs of 0.0797 in/s in the Transverse axis at 10.2 Hz, 0.0434 in/s in the Vertical axis at 3.0 Hz, and 0.2067 in/s in the Longitudinal axis at 5.6 Hz, resulting in a peak vector sum of 0.2068 in/s​​.

Comparative Analysis with USBM RI8507 Standards

The recorded peak particle velocities (PPVs) from both monitoring units, which remained below the ‘stop work’ threshold of 0.25 inches per second as specified in the USBM RI8507 standards, demonstrate effective management of construction vibration risks. This threshold is a vital metric designed to prevent potential structural damage during construction activities. Our thorough review of the seismic data, in comparison to the USBM RI8507 thresholds, indicates that the vibrations observed at a distance of 38 miles from the epicenter are within safe limits for urban structures. This finding alleviates immediate concerns regarding structural integrity, confirming that current monitoring practices are adequately protective.

USBM Damage Thresholds Comparison

The USBM RI8507 standards establish a tiered set of vibration thresholds that take into account the varying frequencies and their potential effects on different construction materials like plaster and drywall. Specifically, at lower frequencies (4-15 Hz), the threshold is set at 0.5 inches per second (IPS) for plaster and 0.75 IPS for drywall. This acknowledges the heightened vulnerability of these materials to damage at lower vibration frequencies.

Analyzing the frequency and PPV data from Units 507 and 518, it appears that the seismic vibrations recorded are closer to the lower end of these threshold ranges, which suggests a reduced risk of structural damage according to USBM standards. Notably, the dominant frequencies recorded—such as 8.7 Hz for Unit 507 Transverse and 10.2 Hz for Unit 518 Transverse—fit within the critical range outlined by the USBM RI8507 for assessing potential impacts on structural integrity. Despite this, the PPVs remained below the ‘stop work’ thresholds, indicating a significant safety margin for the structures involved in this seismic event.

Data Review and Analysis at 62 Miles

We expanded our analysis to include data from seismic activities captured 62 miles away from the epicenter of the New Jersey earthquake. Utilizing triaxial geophones deployed throughout New York City, this part of our study conducts a detailed comparative analysis against the USBM RI8507 and USGS standards. This comprehensive evaluation sheds light on the seismic impact on urban infrastructure from a significant distance. The effects of this earthquake reached as far as 62 miles from the epicenter, impacting areas including New York City. The seismic data collected at this distance is invaluable, providing key insights into the characteristics of ground motion and how seismic waves affect urban environments as they travel. This broader perspective is crucial for understanding and mitigating the potential impacts of seismic events on urban infrastructure.

USBM Damage Thresholds Comparison

Unit 272

  • PPVs recorded: Tran 0.4583 in/s, Vert 0.4251 in/s, Long 0.6262 in/s​​.
  • Notable for recording the highest PPVs among the units, with a peak vector sum of 0.7887 in/s​​.
  • The dominant frequencies were extremely low (around 2 Hz for Tran and Vert, and 9 Hz for Long), which is typical for earthquake-induced vibrations and contrasts the higher frequencies usually associated with construction activities​​.

Unit 158

  • Recorded PPVs: Tran 0.0953 in/s, Vert 0.0891 in/s, Long 0.1102 in/s​​.
  • These PPV values, while detectable, were lower than the Unit 272, showing a decrease in vibration intensity with distance from the seismic source.
  • The frequencies were in the lower range, which is consistent with seismic wave propagation over longer distances​​.

Units 149, 457, 462, and 518 various locations

  • These units recorded lower PPVs overall, with the highest PPV among them being 0.2762 in/s in the Long axis for Unit 149​​.
  • The lower PPVs indicate that the further away from the epicenter, the less intense the vibrations, corroborating with the expected attenuation of seismic waves.
  • The frequencies recorded were in a lower range, similar to the aforementioned units​​​​​​​​.

The USBM RI8507 standards serve as a benchmark for assessing potential damage from vibrations, typically related to construction activities. However, when applied to seismic data, these standards also provide a valuable framework for evaluating the safety margins for urban infrastructure in earthquake scenarios:

  • Safety Thresholds: Despite significant distances from the epicenter, the PPVs observed, especially in Unit 272, approached or exceeded typical construction vibration limits, prompting a reassessment of current urban building codes and seismic safety protocols.
  • Frequency and Intensity Correlation: The correlation between lower frequencies and higher PPVs at extended distances highlights the need for targeted seismic monitoring strategies that can distinguish between different types of ground movements and effectively predict potential structural impacts.

Implications for Urban Infrastructure

This analysis, grounded in a solid methodological approach and precise comparisons with established vibration standards, emphasizes the resilience of urban infrastructure to seismic events of the observed magnitude. It also brings to light the crucial role of continuous monitoring and the potential need to revisit and possibly update existing standards to ensure they align with the evolving understanding of seismic impacts, especially in urban environments.

While the seismic vibrations recorded 38 miles from the epicenter were within the safe limits set by USBM RI8507 standards, the unique characteristics of earthquake-induced vibrations—such as the observed frequencies and PPVs—underscore the need for ongoing vigilance. Adapting monitoring protocols may be necessary to effectively protect urban infrastructure against future seismic activities.


The analysis shows that seismic vibrations both 38 and 62 miles from the epicenter remained within manageable limits for urban structures according to construction vibration standards. The USBM RI8507 standards offer a conservative reference point for assessing potential structural impacts during seismic events. This data confirms that even at considerable distances from the epicenter, the vibrations were within safe limits when compared to these construction standards. Notably, while the USBM RI8507 standards are stringent, they provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating the seismic impacts on urban infrastructure.

However, the specific characteristics of earthquake-induced vibrations, such as their lower frequency components, require distinct consideration from those related to construction activities. The analysis indicated that vibrations decreased in intensity with distance, as shown by lower PPVs farther from the epicenter. Frequency analysis highlighted significant low-frequency components typical of seismic events, which are clearly differentiated from the higher-frequency vibrations associated with construction. This distinction is critical for accurately assessing and mitigating the impact of seismic activities on urban structures.

The recorded data demonstrates clear differences in seismic behavior when compared to the standards set by the USBM RI8507 for construction-related activities:

  • PPV Values: The USBM RI8507 standard suggests stopping work if PPVs exceed certain thresholds. For construction activities, these thresholds vary but typically fall below the PPVs recorded for this seismic event​​.
  • Frequency Content: The USBM RI8507 criteria focus on higher-frequency vibrations typically induced by construction equipment, whereas earthquake data shows a prevalence of lower frequencies.
  • Vibration Duration: Earthquake-induced vibrations are generally of longer duration than those from construction activities, resulting in a different impact on structures and requiring a distinct assessment methodology.

Recommendations for Future Seismic Monitoring

Given the unique characteristics of seismic vibrations, it’s recommended that:

  • Urban areas employ a dual-analysis approach that takes into account both construction-related vibration thresholds and seismic activity data.
  • Vibration monitoring systems need to be calibrated to capture the lower frequency range characteristic of seismic events.
  • Emergency response protocols should be reviewed to incorporate findings from seismic data analysis, ensuring prompt and appropriate actions are taken.


In this white paper, we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of seismic vibrations from an earthquake centered near Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, employing a network of strategically placed triaxial geophones. This network has allowed us to capture critical data from distances of 38 and 62 miles from the epicenter, providing a unique dataset to evaluate against the USBM RI8507 standards and gauge the effectiveness of current urban infrastructure in mitigating seismic impacts.

Our findings indicate that the vibrations recorded at these distances were within the manageable limits set by USBM RI8507 standards, affirming the resilience of urban structures to seismic events of this magnitude. However, the distinctive characteristics of earthquake-induced vibrations, particularly their lower frequency components, necessitate ongoing vigilance and adjustments to current monitoring protocols. This is crucial to ensure they are adequately sensitive and responsive to the nuances of seismic activity, as opposed to construction-related vibrations.

The implications of this analysis extend beyond immediate earthquake response. They underscore the need for a dynamic approach to urban planning and infrastructure design that incorporates these insights into more effective building codes and safety measures. Additionally, the data supports the need for continuous review and possible revision of vibration monitoring standards to align them with evolving seismic risk profiles, especially in urban settings.

By integrating rigorous methodology with detailed seismic data analysis, this paper contributes valuable insights into urban seismic resilience, emphasizing the importance of advanced monitoring technologies and thorough data analysis in safeguarding infrastructure. As we move forward, it is recommended that urban areas refine their monitoring systems and building codes based on these findings, ensuring that they remain robust in the face of such natural challenges.

The proactive measures taken by Big Apple Group in deploying and utilizing advanced seismic monitoring tools have not only mitigated potential damages but also positioned the company as a leader in the field. This initiative exemplifies the critical role that informed, data-driven strategies play in urban resilience planning and highlights the importance of preparedness in managing the risks associated with seismic events. As we continue to advance our understanding and capabilities, it is imperative that we maintain a commitment to improving our infrastructure’s ability to withstand future seismic challenges.


The full list of geophone units and their respective data has been used to compile this report, with details available in the initial white paper. Additionally, USGS data on the New Jersey earthquake has provided the primary seismic information against which the USBM RI8507 standards were compared. For any further details or inquiries, please refer to

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